Mary I was Queen of England from 1553 until her death. She was a cousin, once removed, of Mary, Queen of Scots. Mary is remembered for temporarily reversing the English Reformation and returning England to roman Catholicism. To this end, she had hundreds of religious dissenters executed, earning her the name Bloody Mary. Her plan to remove her half-sister Elizabeth from the line of succession failed when Mary’s marriage to Philip II of Spain produced no offspring. Her religious policies, however, were mostly reversed by her successor, Elizabeth I.
In 1649 following the English Civil War, his father Charles I had been executed and the monarchy abolished. In 1660, shortly after Cromwell's death, the monarchy was restored under Charles II. He was popularly known as the 'Merry Monarch' because of his licentious court. Unlike his father Charles I, Charles II was skilled at managing the Parliament of England, although his methods have been criticized. He had no legitimate heirs, but fourteen illegitimate children were acknowledged. Charles was also a patron of the arts and sciences, which flourished during his reign
Duchess Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, was the queen consort of George III of the United Kingdom. Although Sophia was not George’s choice, their bond was duty. She was the grandmother of Queen Victoria, and the great-great-great-great grandmother of the current Queen Elizabeth II. Queen Charlotte was a patroness of the arts, known to Johann Christian Bach and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, among others. She was also an amateur botanist who helped establish Kew Gardens. Queen Charlotte and King George III had 15 children, 13 of whom survived to adulthood. -